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Mobility Tolerant Multicast for Mobile Ad Hoc Networks


Principal Investigator

    Sandeep K. S. Gupta
    Associate Professor
    Department of Computer Science and Engineering
    Arizona State University

Current Graduate Students

Current REU Students

Graduated Students

  •     Georgios Varsamopoulos, PhD
  •     Ganesh Sridharan, MS
  •     Chetan Reddy, MS
  •     Aarthi Natarajan, MS



Application Requirement

Multi-cast involves sending messages to a restricted group of processes and forms the basis for efficient implementation of group based applications on a distributed system. But in mobile ad hoc networks the topology of the network changes with node movements, variations in the radio propagation conditions, and depletion of battery power of the nodes. Thus, the network can experience frequent network partitioning and may require reconfiguration of the partitioned subnetworks. Efficient solutions for performing multi-casting in mobile ad hoc networks are required so that the application gets desirable QoS in spite of the route disconnections.

Research Challenges

  • Distributed Solutions
  • Energy Efficiency
  • Adaptability
  • Reliability
  • Robustness and Fault Tolerance
  • Meeting Required QoS
  • Low Latency

Research Approach

  • MAC Layer Reliable Multicasting
  • Energy Aware Cross-Layer Design
  • Wireless Group Communication Protocols
  • Efficient Route Disconnection Management
  • Efficient Recovery
  • Proactive Self-stabilizing protocols
  • Controlled  Triggering of Proactive Protocols
  • Energy Management
  • Application QoS Consideration

Our Achievements

Development of Self-stabilizing multicast protocol in Mobile Ad Hoc Networks

Self-stabilization in distributed system provides adaptability and reliability in case of transient failures in the system. Self-stabilizing network protocols has been an intensive research area in the field of networking over the years. In our research, self-stabilizing multicast protocols have been developed to maintain multicast tree in such a manner that it can tolerate faults occurred in the network due to mobility of mobile nodes, depletion of energy etc. Self-stabilizing shortest path spanning tree and minimum spanning tree have been developed. Periodic beacon messages are needed to exchange information among the neighboring nodes. Self-stabilizing action is taken in distributed wireless nodes whenever there is discrepancy with the legitimacy upon reception of a beacon message. Once the network is stabilized to legal state it remains in the legal state unless another fault occurs. Apart from this, Self-stabilizing shortest path algorithm has been enhanced to incorporate energy efficiency in it. The node-based energy metric that is used in this enhancement minimize the wasted energy due to the broadcast nature of the wireless medium which can allow reception energy overhead of unnecessary packets.

To reduce stabilization latency, fault-containment has been incorporated to the above protocols. Fault-containment technique reduces the latency by preventing the contamination of the effects of single transient faults within certain region. We have proposed an improvement to this scheme to reduce stabilization latency even if multiple faults occur in the close proximity to each other.

We have conducted extensive simulations and have also mathematically analyzed our protocol’s throughput-delay characteristics. The protocols have been simulated using NS-2 and a detailed comparison has been done with other multicast protocols like MAODV and ODMRP. Our analytical study determines the beacon interval required to achieve the QoS requirement of an application. It also depends on the route disconnection rate and the multicast traffic generation rate for the application.


S. K. S. Gupta, and P. K. Srimani, Core-Base Tree with Forwarding Regions (CBT-FR): A Protocol for Reliable Mulitcasting in Mobile Ad Hoc Networks, Journal of Parallel and Distributed Computing, Special Issue on Routing. To appear. [PDF]

P. K. Srimani and S. K. S. Gupta. Self-Stabilizing Multicast Protocols for Ad Hoc Networks. Journal of Parallel and Distributed Computing, vol. 63, no. 1, pp. 87-96, 2003 [PDF]

Ganesh Sridharan. Energy-Efficient Shortest Path Self-Stabilizing Multicast Protocol for Mobile Ad Hoc Networks. MS Thesis, Arizona State University, May 2004. [Document | Presentation]

S. K. S Gupta and T. Mukherjee, Expediting Fault-Containment of a Self-Stabilizing Multicast Protocol for Mobile Ad Hoc Networks, Submitted to Transaction on Dependable and Secure Computing [PPT]


MAC Layer Reliable Multicasting

In our research, we have focused on single-hop multicast reliability at the Medium Access Control (MAC) level. Apart from meeting the requirements of the above mentioned applications, MAC level reliable multicast also increases link quality and dependability as perceived by multicast protocols at the higher layers. Local error recovery increases end-to-end goodput and reduces latency for applications requiring reliability. Further, we can increase overall multicast efficiency by harnessing the wireless broadcast advantage at the MAC level.

We have proposed the 802.11MX reliable multicast extension to the IEEE 802.11 standard. We have conducted extensive simulations and have also mathematically analyzed our protocol’s throughput-delay characteristics. Our simulation results validate our analysis. The protocol is scalable and its throughput efficiency is not affected by station mobility. 802.11MX drops about 0.1% of data packets as compared to the 40% of IEEE 802.11 multicast under similar channel and traffic conditions.


S. K. S. Gupta, V. Shankar, S. Lalwani, Reliable Multicast MAC Protocol for Wireless LANs, IEEE International Conference on Communications, 2003. ICC '03. Volume: 1, 2003, Page(s): 93-97. [PDF]


Energy Efficient Multicast Protocol in Wireless Ad Hoc Networks

We have proposed a framework for energy-efficient multicasting, which can be used for two different multicast optimization goals: minimizing energy consumption and maximizing lifetime, two different multicast distribution trees: source-based tree and group-shared tree. The framework can also adapt to the dynamic nature of wireless network, such as link error rate. The basic idea of our approach is: a node switches from its connected tree neighbor to another node so that energy consumption in multicasting can be reduced or multicast lifetime can be extended.

We have proved that our refinement approach only needs local knowledge, and discovered the conditions for the simultaneous refinements. Applying the framework, we have proposed three distributed energy-efficient multicast protocols: G-REMiT , S-REMiT , and L-REMiT. G-REMiT is used for minimizing energy consumption of group-shared multicast tree. S-REMiT and L-REMiT are used for minimizing energy consumption and maximizing tree-lifetime of a source-based multicast tree, respectively. Our simulation results show that the above three protocols perform better than all other known algorithms.


Bin Wang and Sandeep K.S. Gupta, G-REMiT: An algorithm for building energy efficient multicast trees in wireless ad hoc networks, Second IEEE International Symposium on Network Computing and Applications, 16-18 April 2003, Page(s): 265-272. [PDF | PPT]

Bin Wang and SandeepK.S. Gupta, S-REMiT: A Distributed Algorithm for Source-based Energy Efficient Multicasting in Wireless Ad Hoc Networks, Proc. of IEEE 2003 Global Communications Conference (GLOBECOM), San Francisco, CA, Dec. 2003. [PDF | PPT]



A cooperative caching scheme in wireless ad hoc networks

We have proposed a cooperative caching scheme for wireless ad hoc networks, which helps to improve data availability and access efficiency. The study is focused on two basic problems for cooperative caching: cache resolution and cache management. For cache resolution, a mobile node dynamically determines the best data source for information retrievement. For cache management,  we try to minimize caching duplications between neighboring nodes and use the cooperative cache to store more distinctive data items to improve the overall performance. We also investigated multicast-based cooperative caching, where cooperative caching groups are mapped to multicast groups.


Y. Du and S. K. S. Gupta, Cache Management in Wireless and Mobile Computing Environments, Handbook of Mobile Computing, CRC Press, 2004.

A. Kahol, S. Khurana, S. K. S. Gupta, and P. K. Srimani, A Strategy to Manage Cache Consistency in a Distributed Mobile Wireless Environment. IEEE Trans. on Parallel and Distributed Systems, pp 686-700, vol. 12(7), July 2001.


REU Student Project

Robert Fisher is currently integrating mobility-tolerant multicasting in Ayushman, a sensor network based medical monitoring infrastructure and testbed.

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